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Prevention Disease Infection: EBBA-R

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Prevention Disease Infection: EBBA-R

The body fluids and substances of all persons should be considered to contain potentially infectious agents. No distinction may be made between body fluids and substances from individuals with a known disease or infection and those from a symptomatic or undiagnosed individuals. Body fluids and substances include blood, semen, drainage from scrapes and cuts, feces, urine, vomitus, respiratory secretions (e.g., nasal discharge) and saliva.

The following infection control practices should be followed in all situations involving potential contact with any body fluids and substances:

  1. Wear gloves when it is likely that hands will be in contact with body fluids or substances (blood, urine, feces, wound drainage, oral secretions, sputum or vomitus). When possible, wear gloves while holding bloody noses and dealing with cuts that are bleeding heavily. Gloves should be kept in emergency response kits and be readily accessible at sites where students seek assistance for bloody noses or injuries.
    • a. If gloves are not available, the use of towels or some other clean materials as a barrier may provide some protection.
    • b. Cuts and sores on your skins should be routinely covered to avoid infection.
    • c. When possible, have students wash off their own cuts and abrasions. After cuts are washed with soap and water, they should be covered with Band-Aids or bandages of the appropriate size. Where possible, students should be taught to hold their own bloody noses.
  2. When possible, pocket face masks should be used for mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
  3. Wash hands often and well, paying particular attention to areas around and under fingernails and between fingers.
  4. Clean up as soon as possible after any skin contact with any body fluid or substance.
    • a. Wash skin with soap and water
    • b. Wash contaminated surfaces and nondisposable items with standard disinfectant. Use aerosol germicide cleaner.
    • c. Wash contaminated clothing and linen in detergent with hot water.
    • d. Contaminated tissues, paper towels and other disposable items should be placed in plastic bags before being discarded.

Use individual judgment in determining when barriers are needed for unpredictable situations. It is strongly recommended that barriers be used when contact with body fluids or substances is anticipated.

Although HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)/AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) has received a great deal of attention, there are other diseases more communicable than HIV/AIDS of which staff members also should be aware. The following page includes a table listing communicable diseases and body substance sources of infection.

  1. It is extremely difficult to be infected with HIV/AIDS. Exposure of blood to intact skin is a highly unlikely way of being infected with HIV/AIDS.
  2. HIV/AIDS is transmitted by getting blood, semen or vaginal secretions into the bloodstream of a non infected person.
  3. Other body substances (saliva, tears, urine or feces) have extremely small, if any, levels of virus.
  4. There have been no documented cases of HIV/AIDS transmitted by mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.
  5. HIV is easily destroyed by common disinfectants.


Body Substance Source Organism of concern Transmission

-nose bleeds
-contaminated needle

Hepatitis B virus
Bloodstream inoculation through cuts and abrasions on hands
Direct blood stream inoculation
Hepatitis A virus
Salmonella bacteria
Shigella bacteria
**Oral inoculation from contaminated hands
*Respiratory secretions
-nasal discharge
Common cold virus Influenza virus
***Epstein-Barr virus
**Oral inoculation from contaminated hands
*Vomitus Gastrointestinal viruses (e.g. Norwalk virus) **Oral inoculation from contaminated hands
*Urine -incontinence ***Cytomegalovirus Bloodstream inoculation through cuts and abrasions on hands
Semen/vaginal fluids Hepatitis B virus
Gonococcus bacteria
Sexual contact (intercourse)

*There are no reported cases of HIV/AIDS suspected of having been transmitted by these sources. Wear gloves when exposed to body secretion, especially blood, urine or feces.
*** These agents cause mononucleosis-like illness